Sharding roadmap


The roadmap is an active area of research. The outline below is only intended to provide flavour. It is intended for this document to be maintained with ongoing R&D.

Sourced originally from the now retired spec for phase 1 sharding, with modifications.

Phase 1: Basic sharding without EVM

Phase 2: EVM state transition function

Phase 3: Light client state protocol

  • Executors
  • State-minimized clients. Stateless clients are not ideal as we don't want to offload all storage into secondary markets, rather we can give people a choice to pay storage rent on the blockchain or pay for it in secondary markets.

Phase 4: Cross-shard transactions: see here and more.

Phase 5: Tight coupling with main chain security: here and more.

Phase 6: Super-quadratic or exponential sharding

And a lot more:

For more information see and